Region Jnkpings ln Odontologiska Institutionen
plus.rjl.se/oi

A screening test for orofacial function: the Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening, NOT-S

Bakke M*, Bergendal B, McAllister A, Sjögreen L, Åsten P

Objectives

The objective was to develop a global screening instrument for evaluation of orofacial function in humans from 3 yrs of age, easy to perform for health professionals with different background without the use of special equipment, it should have good reliability, and the ability to discriminate between patients with disabilities and healthy subjects, and also between various degrees of disability.

Methods

The NOT-S form was developed with a picture manual illustrating different tasks. Six domains were selected. They were (I) sensation, (II) breathing, (III) habits, (IV) chewing and swallowing, (V) drooling, (VI) dry mouth were evaluated in the interview, and (1) facial deviations, (2) nose breathing, (3) facial expression, (4) masseter activation and jaw opening, (5) intraoral motor activity, and (6) speech from observation. Any YES for impairment in a domain gave 1 point (total score 0–12 points).

Results

The score in 120 patients (3–86 yr, x 26.3) referred to clinics for specialized dental care or speech pathology was 4.1±2.6 (M±SD), and 0.5±0.7 in 60 controls (3–78 yr, x 30.9). The highest mean score was recorded in the ICD-10 Classification, Diseases of the circulatory system (8.0±3.5), and the lowest in Diseases of the ear and mastoid process (0.0). Scores in the most common classifications, Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities and Diseases of the nervous system, were 4.1±2.5 and 3.7±2.4. Based on repeated evaluations of videotapes of 20 patients by 4 examiners with >2 wk intervals the interexaminer agreement was 83 % and the intraexaminer agreement 92–95 %. After calibration the agreement increased to 85 % and 95–99 %, respectively, in 20 new patients.

Conclusions

NOT-S has good intra- and interexaminer agreement in different health professions. It discriminates between different degrees of disability and identifies domains with need of further examination.

Uppdaterad: 2012-05-08
Eva Larsson, Kompetenscenter för sällsynta odontologiska tillstånd, Folktandvården